From old Saturday morning cartoons to commemorative air shows, vintage aircraft nose art lives on in our cultural memory long after artists were no longer commissioned to customize military planes with colorful imagery. Unfortunately, this distinctive touchstone of western military practices in the early 20th century often gets overlooked by the flashier and more heroic details of other wartime exploits. Yet, these iconic planes and their distinctive artwork stand as a testament to their crews' individuality and tenacity as they stood against the onslaught of an uncertain future.
Aircraft Art Takes to the Skies
The first documented evidence of aircraft nose art that's present in the historical record hails from 1913 when an Italian boat plane spirited through the skies bearing a sea monster on its fuselage. In this regard, during the pre-war period of the early 20th century, Italian pilots were already marking their planes with distinct images, and this practice soon transitioned into the aircraft fleets battling in World War I. Though these decorative paintings were used to distinguish between 'ace' planes and lesser successful ones, their colorful presence led the way to the more popular plane art of WWII.
Aircraft Nose Art Flourishes in World War II
Born during the wreckage, destruction, and general turmoil of World War II, the highly colorful airplane nose art that was painted across the Allied bombers and fighter planes was a sight to behold. Incorporating both text and images, these murals were painted across the metal hulls and noses of various military canvases. Yet, these images were much more than just cheeky decorations; they gave strength and courage to the planes' pilots and crew members.
The Meanings Behind the Art
The aircraft art that was created during World War II manifested out of the soldiers' desires to individualize themselves in an organization that striped them of their individuality. It also served as an intimidation tactic, as well as a way to track their partners in arms while they were in the sky. Art is the best medium for expressing one's inner self, so there wasn't any better way for these high-flying soldiers to express their camaraderie, personality, and mission than by bearing it across their metal skins. In fact, these artworks were anything but contraband as the United States military permitted such graffiti, so long as it was officially approved.
Popular Aircraft Nose Art Designs
The most delightful element to this practice was the sheer creativity these artists, like Cleveland Institute of Art graduate Don Allen, illustrated. From cartoon characters like Donald Duck and the wolf from Red Hot Riding Hood to Rita Hayworth and her sensuously bare legs, these images ran the gamut of early 20th century pop culture. In fact, here are just a few of the famous subjects that were painted on WWII airplanes:
- Cartoon characters - Famous cartoon characters from the Walt Disney and Warner Bros' catalogs were painted in wartime contexts, often wearing military uniforms or holding weapons themselves as if they too were going off to war.
- Animals - The shark mouth with its teeth on display was the most iconic piece of aircraft nose art to come out of the period, though other animals, like birds of prey and large cats, were also painted across the front of the planes.
- Pin-up girls/actresses - Dangerously risque and often not approved by the military to be added to these planes, soldiers loved suggestively posed pin-up girls straddling bombs and waving goodbye along with renderings of the period's most famous Hollywood actresses (Rita Hayworth, Betty Grable, and so on), and they defiantly painted them on their fighter and bomber planes.
- Homages to people's hometowns - Whether it was a witty one-liner or a scenic mural of someone's childhood city, you could also find planes with sentimental homages to their hometowns painted on their hulls and noses.
See the Artwork Up-Close and Personal
Although the practice of painting the noses of their aircraft quickly fell out of favor in the post-war period, the relics from this bygone era have been lovingly restored by curators and collectors alike. So, for a taste of what these beauties looked like in their heyday, you can visit exhibitions and experience air shows put on by organizations like the Commemorative Air Force. In preserving these physical pieces of history, public institutions are able to keep the past alive for people to enjoy.
Nosedive Into These Colorful Artworks
Vintage aircraft nose art is so intricately linked to the popular imagery of World War II that people are still fascinated by their artistry, even today. Whether you've gotten to see some up close and personal or have to rely on the many photos that have been collected of the art over the years, their vivacious presence still leaps off of the page a hundred years later. After all, the clouds were their canvas, and the skies were the limit for these military men and their fighting planes.